South Korea’s General Elections

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Snap elections were announced following Park Geun-hye’s forced removal from office, and the result of that installed Moon Jae-in as the next President of South Korea

Moon Jae-in was recently declared the winner in the South Korean presidential elections, and his win came as a bit of a surprise, given Moon’s past track record of having constantly protested against dynastical rule by Park Chung-hee and Park Geun-hye. The win for Moon can be regarded as a landslide and it comes as a breath of fresh air amidst the negativity that has been circulating around South Korean politics for quite some time now. Ever since, the last president, Park Geun-hye, was sent to prison following a parliament impeachment because of having taken bribes from large corporations with a friend, as well as both permitting her friend to interfere in policy-making and sharing state secrets with her, the next wise political step for South Korea has been shrouded in confusion.

Moon’s recent electoral victory has largely been about making the Korean state fairer. The gap between the rich and the poor, corruption in South Korean society because of the government’s close connections to big corporations, and the grievous difficulty in securing jobs for the young are major issues, which Moon should use his singular five-year term in power to address. Moon has promised to make his government more kind to the public’s concerns – more than half of his votes came from young people in their twenties and thirties, so over the big question of providing more employment opportunities to young South Koreans, which at the time is tough to get without good connections, Moon has promised job creation, primarily in the public sector, a portion of which will be targeted towards young people in South Korea.

Major challenges also exist for Moon over bettering relations with neighbour states: Japan, China and North Korea. South Korea and North Korea still do not see eye-to-eye on matters very much because of the latter’s constant insistence of ramming up nuclear developments. It’s so tough to imagine a different orientation of matters but Moon has offered to reach out if things improve – at the moment, President Trump is pressing for payment of a US-born missile-defence system (THAAD), which brews concern over South Korea’s relations with China because the communist state is already unhappy about THAAD’s use, leading it to boycott South Korean goods. Meanwhile, Japan’s trouble with South Korea is an entirely different one though – the state is not pleased with a revival of anti-Japan protests in South Korea, over what happened during the second world war.

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China’s Economic Woes

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A major problem for China is economic uncertainty. This is in spite of the fact that growth rates are not expected to be cut for the nation. Fear is widespread over the uncertainty and its roots lie in the fear over the state’s hesitation to act warmly towards technocrats; the fear is not sprouting from this idea that it will be very difficult for China to become a stable income country.

Economic problems around the globe made the beginning of this year the worst post 1970. China, itself, is no longer just a picture of a Communist state on the rise. It is also a state where debt is a growing problem, trouble brews in the labor market and the country cannot really engage with the idea of Mao Zedong.

Since 2009, fewer babies were getting born in China which meant a shrinking of the working age group and an increase in figures of elderly Chinese people; this has also seen rising fear among the young of having to look after the old. Other problems plaguing the nation include increasing unemployment figures for graduates, prices of property which are just unaffordable and the environment acting as a barrier to industrialization.

Me while, previously in China, well-ranked people would often count their backgrounds to be in business and NGOs used to be permitted to operate within its borders. Currently China is experiencing a decent level of democracy and a shade of totalitarianism.

The Problems of Pollution and Economic Growth in India

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India is one of the most heavily polluted nations in the world: every single day it witnesses more toxic powders than China (its competitor) and that is not a fact to be proud of because China itself is a very polluted country. However, when it comes to economic growth, India is performing better than China, even when during the last few months of 2015, growth had considerably reduced for the former.

Pollution

Delhi has earned the label of ‘the most polluted developing town’ from the World Health Organization (WHO). Every year, many Indians die as a result of polluted air. Although, vehicles such cars so pollute the environment in India, in many cities the main cause for the pollution is that people cook food inside their homes; in Northern India, particularly, the main cause is the burning of stubble in the countryside.

The government is expected to introduce many new measures to battle the problem of pollution, such as the improved maintenance of roads. Measures already introduced in the last decade, meanwhile, include: making it a requirement for auto-rickshaws plus taxis to use natural gas as fuel and a decrease in the practice of burning waste.

Economic Growth

One reason why the developing nation is not improving faster is a lack of investment. Bureaucracy continues to negatively impact Indian businesses an owing to the disappointing state the weather was in recently, agriculture lies in a bad state as well. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has has stated in response to the agricultural problem that the government cares over the woes which farmers have plus goals exist to allow farmers to earn more money than before, rake in profits earned from reaped food and also cut whatever losses they have incurred following harvest.

Discovering The Modern Food Plate: Rice

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India is the world’s most heavily-populated nation – it is where most of the world’s farmers live. There is a scarcity of water in the land, which is posing as a cause of concern for agriculture, making only 44percent of all fertile land suitable for cultivating rice because that is the only portion that can be irrigated. Most rice farmers have to thus depend heavily on the seasonal monsoons, annually.

Policy Push for Change

The last thirty years has seen farmers in India face many different challenges because they could not even depend much on the monsoon season – it brought droughts with it, and this problem is becoming more and more common. The World Bank has supported initiatives to help the Indian government spark a national watershed management program, to advertise the need to both conserve and make proper use of water.

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People need to be educated more about the subject, and technical supervision is also required to mobilise farmers and communities, to better manage resources. Hybrid rice is also another potential antidote to the drought situation, because this kind of rice can grow faster, with the help of less water, to produce the crop. Basmati rice, that is drought-resistant takes somewhere around 30 days earlier than crossbred types, to be harvested. The agriculture policy move has been well-received in India, amongst farmers.

Discovering The Modern Food Plate: Corn

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Rice use to once upon a time be regarded as the top crop in China. This reality has however, gone south and fallen upon corn – production of corn has increased from almost 125percent for the last 25 years, but rice has only increased 7percent. Meat lovers are responsible for this new dimension of food crop growth, as the Communist government pushes for farmers to take up the incentive to grow corns instead of rice. Poultry animals are also being fed corns and the farming method is also improving water quality in the region.

A Green China

Corn makes less use of H2O than rice production, and also contributes far less to environmental pollution. As a result, drinking water is made more suitable than for the Chinese, and China, once one of the world’s most polluted countries, is switching to green. The World Bank estimates that the country is responsible for a whooping 30percent consumption of fertilizers, globally.

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The agriculture department in the government has calculated that, from 2005 onwards and right up until 2011, there has been a stagnant drop in fertilizer growth because of the government’s in-house soil-testing program. Somewhere around 51.mn tonnes of CO2 has been prevented from being emitted around the country. This is a new China, one that thinks about pollution and also about providing food for it’s citizens – it has become a global example of brilliant policymaking in agriculture and food.

China’s Rural Story

China’s countryside has popped up in the news off-late, because of how it contributes to the country’s economic development. There isn’t a lot of agricultural land in China, even though geographically, it is the third biggest country in the world. Most of the farmers own small pieces of land, have a low income, and have a really hard life. There is not enough labour to meet rural China’s demands, so most of the land is unused, farmed ineffectively.

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There is not enough competitive behaviour, or productive use of technology, or too much of construction is always going on to overturn farm marshlands into a developed rural neighbourhood. Food security and a dependable rural infrastructure, is crucial to building a sustainable environment, which is well-suited to the country’s society and politics. Because over the years, China has seen such a rapid expansion pouring into the cities, the countryside has been left neglected.

Some number crunching, from 2013, reveal that farmers in China earn somewhere around 9,000yuan annually, but the city dwellers average an income, a little greater than 26,955yuan. Wherever industrial development has gone, so has a higher income: the east sees more affluent homes, families than the west. A brain drain has ensued, in the envelope, of all of this modernisation: most of the young/working-age population, who gain a good education, travel to the cities.

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In rural China, some 70percent of the population, have only attained a primary and middle school education. So, most are unable to operate the technology that exists to help drive farming forwards. In China, the constitution dictates that farms belong to ‘collectives’ rather than to the state or to farmers, themselves. You can contract cultivated land, for a period of time, be it grasslands, or forests. So, farmers do not have much free control over them, apart from earning their livelihood through harvests.

Better irrigation procedures, roads needs to be built to quickstart the rural development because farmers cannot already claim private ownership of lands, they have spent most of their days working on, and earning small incomes. When feudal Chinese society was at it’s peak, it emerged that private ownership, did nothing to benefit farmers financially. So many sold off their land at a cheap price, or ended up losing it, so Western practices in farming lands, is looked upon quite sceptically here.

There was societal unrest as the gap between the rich and the poor, widened, then. Some farmers could lose their farms due to bad management, poor farming, or natural disasters, in modern times, if private ownership was becoming to Chinese customs. This would then stave farmers off any income at all, so this idea should be thought more about as China gears up to put rural development, into motion.